While connecting to your server through SSH can be very secure, the SSH daemon itself is a service that must be exposed to the Internet to function properly. This comes with some inherent risk and offers a vector of attack for would-be assailants.
Any service that is exposed to the network is a potential target in this way. If you pay attention to application logs for these services, you will often see repeated, systematic login attempts that represent brute-force attacks by users and bots alike.
A service called Fail2ban can mitigate this problem by creating rules that automatically alter your iptables firewall configuration based on a predefined number of unsuccessful login attempts. This will allow your server to respond to illegitimate access attempts without intervention from you.
In this guide, we’ll cover how to install and use Fail2ban on a CentOS 7 server.
Install Fail2ban on CentOS 7
While Fail2ban is not available in the official CentOS package repository, it is packaged for the EPEL project. EPEL, standing for Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, can be installed with a release package that is available from CentOS:
- sudo yum install epel-release
You will be prompted to continue—press y, followed by Enter:
Transaction Summary ============================================================================ Install 1 Package Total download size: 14 k Installed size: 24 k Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Now we should be able to install the
- sudo yum install fail2ban
Again, press y and Enter when prompted to continue.
Once the installation has finished, use
systemctl to enable the
- sudo systemctl enable fail2ban
Configure Local Settings
The Fail2ban service keeps its configuration files in the
/etc/fail2ban directory. There, you can find a file with default values called
jail.conf. Since this file may be overwritten by package upgrades, we shouldn’t edit it in-place. Instead, we’ll write a new file called
jail.local. Any values defined in
jail.local will override those in
jail.conf contains a
[DEFAULT] section, followed by sections for individual services.
jail.local may override any of these values. Additionally, files in
/etc/fail2ban/jail.d/ can be used to override settings in both of these files. Files are applied in the following order:
Any file may contain a
[DEFAULT] section, executed first, and may also contain sections for individual jails. The last vavalue set for a given parameter takes precedence.
Let’s begin by writing a very simple version of
jail.local. Open a new file using
nano (or your editor of choice):
- sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.local
Paste the following:
[DEFAULT] # Ban hosts for one hour: bantime = 3600 # Override /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/00-firewalld.conf: banaction = iptables-multiport [sshd] enabled = true
This overrides three settings: It sets a new default
bantime for all services, makes sure we’re using
iptables for firewall configuration, and enables the
Exit and save the new file (in
nano, press Ctrl-X to exit, y to save, and Enter to confirm the filename). Now we can restart the
fail2ban service using
- sudo systemctl restart fail2ban
systemctl command should finish without any output. In order to check that the service is running, we can use
- sudo fail2ban-client status
Status |- Number of jail: 1 `- Jail list: sshd
You can also get more detailed information about a specific jail:
- sudo fail2ban-client status sshd
Explore Available Settings
The version of
jail.local we defined above is a good start, but you may want to adjust a number of other settings. Open
jail.conf, and we’ll examine some of the defaults. If you decide to change any of these values, remember that they should be copied to the appropriate section of
jail.local and adjusted there, rather than modified in-place.
- sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf
Default Settings for All Jails
First, scroll through the
ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8
You can adjust the source addresses that Fail2ban ignores by adding a value to the
ignoreip parameter. Currently, it is configured not to ban any traffic coming from the local machine. You can include additional addresses to ignore by appending them to the end of the parameter, separated by a space.
bantime = 600
bantime parameter sets the length of time that a client will be banned when they have failed to authenticate correctly. This is measured in seconds. By default, this is set to 600 seconds, or 10 minutes.
findtime = 600 maxretry = 3
The next two parameters that you want to pay attention to are
maxretry. These work together to establish the conditions under which a client should be banned.
maxretry variable sets the number of tries a client has to authenticate within a window of time defined by
findtime, before being banned. With the default settings, Fail2ban will ban a client that unsuccessfully attempts to log in 3 times within a 10 minute window.
destemail = [email protected] sendername = Fail2Ban mta = sendmail
If you wish to configure email alerts, you may need to override the
mta settings. The
destemail parameter sets the email address that should receive ban messages. The
sendername sets the value of the “From” field in the email. The
mta parameter configures what mail service will be used to send mail.
action = $(action_)s
This parameter configures the action that Fail2ban takes when it wants to institute a ban. The value
action_ is defined in the file shortly before this parameter. The default action is to simply configure the firewall to reject traffic from the offending host until the ban time elapses.
If you would like to configure email alerts, you can override this value from
action_mw. If you want the email to include the relevant log lines, you can change it to
action_mwl. You’ll want to make sure you have the appropriate mail settings configured if you choose to use mail alerts.
Settings for Individual Jails
[DEFAULT], we’ll encounter sections configuring individual jails for different services. These will typically include a
port to be banned and a
logpath to monitor for malicious access attempts. For example, the SSH jail we already enabled in
jail.local has the following settings:
[sshd] port = ssh logpath = %(sshd_log)s
In this case,
ssh is a pre-defined variable for the standard SSH port, and
%(sshd_log)s uses a value defined elsewhere in Fail2ban’s standard configuration (this helps keep
jail.conf portable between different operating systems).
Another setting you may encounter is the
filter that will be used to decide whether a line in a log indicates a failed authentication.
filter value is actually a reference to a file located in the
/etc/fail2ban/filter.d directory, with its
.conf extension removed. This file contains the regular expressions that determine whether a line in the log is bad. We won’t be covering this file in-depth in this guide, because it is fairly complex and the predefined settings match appropriate lines well.
However, you can see what kind of filters are available by looking into that directory:
- ls /etc/fail2ban/filter.d
If you see a file that looks to be related to a service you are using, you should open it with a text editor. Most of the files are fairly well commented and you should be able to tell what type of condition the script was designed to guard against. Most of these filters have appropriate (disabled) sections in
jail.conf that we can enable in
jail.local if desired.
For instance, pretend that we are serving a website using Nginx and realize that a password-protected portion of our site is getting slammed with login attempts. We can tell Fail2ban to use the
nginx-http-auth.conf file to check for this condition within the
This is actually already set up in a section called
[nginx-http-auth] in our
/etc/fail2ban/jail.conf file. We would just need to add an
enabled parameter for the
nginx-http-auth jail to
[DEFAULT] # Ban hosts for one hour: bantime = 3600 # Override /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/00-firewalld.conf: banaction = iptables-multiport [sshd] enabled = true [nginx-http-auth] enabled = true
And restart the
- sudo systemctl restart fail2ban
Monitor Fail2ban Logs and Firewall Configuration
It’s important to know that a service like Fail2ban is working as-intended. Start by using
systemctl to check the status of the service:
- sudo systemctl status fail2ban
If something seems amiss here, you can troubleshoot by checking logs for the
fail2ban unit since the last boot:
- sudo journalctl -b -u fail2ban
fail2ban-client to query the overall status of
fail2ban-server, or any individual jail:
- sudo fail2ban-client status
- sudo fail2ban-client status jail_name
Follow Fail2ban’s log for a record of recent actions (press Ctrl-C to exit):
- sudo tail -F /var/log/fail2ban.log
List the current rules configured for iptables:
- sudo iptables -L
Show iptables rules in a format that reflects the commands necessary to enable each rule:
- sudo iptables -S